Thursday, June 17, 2010

tehsil Bani tehsil Basohli map

Kathua Map

Miniatures paintings --- on the basis of geography and family style

Miniatures paintings are intricate, colorful handmade illuminations or paintings, small in size, executed meticulously with delicate brushwork. The colors used in the miniature paintings were derived from minerals, vegetables, precious stones, indigo, conch shells, pure gold and silver. Many of the miniature paintings are based on ‘Ragas’ or musical codes of Indian classical music.

Rajput paintings in the region of the Punjab Hill states of North India, i.e. in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and few areas in erstwhile Pakistan are known as Pahari paintings. Scholars have categorized Pahari paintings on the basis of geography and family style. 

On the basis of geography two categories can be identified. One is the Basohli and Kulu style, and second is the Guler and Kangra style. While the former group shows influence of the Chaurpanchasika style and emphasizes on the abstraction, bold lines, and conservative colors, the latter underscores on cooler colors and refinement. 

Parallel can be drawn between the developments of the Pahari School and the Rajasthan School. However, there are certain punctuated gaps in the development of Pahari paintings, which the scholarly research is trying to fill in. The family relationship of the Hill Rajas with the royal court at Rajasthan had its marked influence on the painting traditions, which evolved in the Hill States. The influence of the Mughuls, Gujarat, and Deccan were also conspicuous in these Indian paintings. 

The growing popularity of vernacular literature with the emergence of Bhakti movement provided themes for the Pahari Paintings. Erstwhile Shaiva- Shakta themes in paintings were now accompanied by the vernacular poetry and folk songs adoring Krishna and Rama. Katha-vachaka (story teller) played a significant role in broadening people’s understanding of the religious texts like Puranans and Ramayana. 

They held discourses in temples, market places and educated people on proper conduct and purity of life. While, the poets and performers from the plains visited hills and provided cultural performances. Thus, the vibrant social and cultural milieu provided endless themes to the painters. 
Unlike Rajasthani Paintings, which centered on portraitures, and depiction of splendid court life, Pahari paintings emphasized on love and devotional themes. 

The royalty commissioned texts based on love themes and stories of Krishna. Gita Govinda (the Divine Love Song) and the tenth book of the Bhagavata Purana (the stories of Krishna) provided evergreen themes. While the Aranya Kanda, and the Lanka Kanda of Ramayana epic were repeatedly illustrated. 

One of the early notable works of art was Devi Mahatmya manuscript, painted at Kangra in 1552. Besides this, Rasamanjiri, a 15th century Sanskrit text, penned down by Bhanudaata of Mithila in Bihar, was a significant illustrated work. The heroes (nayakas) and heroines (nayikas) and beauteous maidens of this rhetoric text personified subtle ecstasies of romance. 

Pahari Paintings: Jammu -- Jasrota -- Kangra -- Kulu -- Mandi -- Mankot -- Nurpur -- Bilaspur

Pahari Paintings 

Jammu 

The painting traditions of Jammu in the late 18th century and early 19th century showed close resemblance with the Kangra type. Recent research has indicated that Shangri Ramayana of the late 17th and early 18th centuries was produced in Jammu and not in Kangra as it was earlier believed to be. 

Jasrota 

Jasrota, located in Jammu and Kashmir, saw some noteworthy works of art executed by Nainsukh of Guler. Under Raja Balwant Singh (1724-63) , Nainsukh produced portraits, court scenes, events from the prince’s life as well as allegorical scenes. 

Kangra

In the second half of the 18th century, Kangra style characterized with the lyrical and refined qualities developed. Under Maharaja Sansar Chand, Kangra became the main center of Pahari Painting. Artists from the family of Pandit Seu produced finest works of art in this school. Bhagavata Purana, Gita Govinda, Nala Damayanti, Ragamala, and Satsai (Seven Hundred verses) were some of the notable works of art. Sansar Chand also commissioned many durbar scenes of himself and his nobles but these were in a stiffer and formal style. 

Kulu

A series of portraits of the Kulu rulers have been executed outside Kulu. Shangri Ramayana dated 1690 –1710 ascribed to Kulu, exhibited four distinct styles. However, new scholastic research indicates that this work was not produced in Kulu but at Jammu. The other notable works of art were a Bhagavata Purana and two Madhumalati manuscripts. 

Mandi

Mandi, a small kingdom south of Kulu saw the emergence of an individualized style under Raja Sidh Sen ( 1684-1727). Portraits patronized by him depicted the ruler as a gigantic figure with exaggerated enlarged heads, hands and feet. The same painting tradition continued in the reign of his successor Shamsher Sen (1721-81). It is interesting to note that both the rulers have been depicted as incarnations of Shiva in the paintings commissioned by them. 

Mention must be made of Sajanu, an artist who produced splendid work characterized by geometric compositions and delicate naturalistic details. 

Mankot 

Painting traditions at Mankot located in Jammu and Kashmir closely resembled to the Basholi type. Portraitures were common in the mid 17th century. The paintings in this region were characterized with the use of bright colors and boldly rendered subjects. Bhagavata Purana and Ramayana were few of the significant works of this region. In the later period the style showed greater naturalism and use of muted colors. 

Nurpur 

Nurpur, in Himachal Pradesh can be described as a stopover between Chamba and the Punjab plains. Chamba painters often stayed there, which resulted in cultural exchange between their counterparts at Nurpur. This is manifested in the certain common idioms used in the paintings of both regions. One of the earliest paintings was of the ruler and his brother at worship. This work carried a strong Mughal influence. The Nurpur style employed bright colors and mostly flat backgrounds. However in the later period the paintings used muted colors. 

Bilaspur

Bilaspur, situated in Himachal Pradesh saw the rise of the paintings in the mid 17th century. The earlier paintings were portraitures that were succeeded by illustrations of the Bhagavata Purana, Ramayana, and Ragamala series in the 18th century. Besides these, painters at Bilaspur also executed paintings on rumal (coverlets) for rituals and ceremonies. 



Basohli Paintings

Basohli Paintings

Basohli, situated on the bank of the Ravi River produced magnificent series of manifestations of the supreme goddess called Devi series. The Devi series was bold in execution and iridescent beetles were used in the illustrations as jewels. 

Another notable illustration was the romantic text of Rasamanjari, painted by artist Devidasa under the patronage of Raja Kirpal Pal (1678-95). Basohli rulers also patronized portrait paintings. 

Gita Govinda, dated 1730, painted, by Manaku, for a patron Malini is believed to have a Basohli origin.

The chief characteristics of the Basohli paintings were geometrical patterns, and use of bold colors to infuse vitality in the paintings. Besides the bold colors, lustrous enamel like colors were also employed. The decorative conventions and dramatic compositions where the figures were shown clad in rich costumes, stylized faces, and large bulging eyes lent unique individuality to these paintings. 

Pahari Paintings : Guler Kangra Style

Pahari Paintings : Guler Kangra Style

In a span of one and a half centuries, around 1800, dramatic changes in the painting traditions led to the development of mature Guler- Kangra style. The decorative and stylized treatment of various motifs in flat, and cut out forms became more naturalistic in the new style. 

The difference was visible in the treatment of eyes and modeling of the face. This painting style introduced naturalistic landscapes. 

The illustrated Gita Govinda, from this genre, showed landscapes, and used shading. Scholars noted that the shading device appeared all over the grassy plains of the several paintings of the series. However, this feature was absent in the earlier Pahari paintings. 

The other significant development of this period was the emphasis on the graciousness and feminity of Indian women. The facial types of women were well modeled and shaded so judiciously that it provided porcelain like delicacy. 



Guler

Painting in Guler began earnestly in the 18th century. The family of Pandit Seu was well noted for their fine body of work. Ramayana dated 1720 and a series of collection in Reitberg Museum were few of his classic work. His work laid the foundation of the Kangra style, which was evolved and refined, from the artists of his family subsequently.


Pahari Paintings : Garhwal

Pahari Paintings : Garhwal

Molu Ram was a noted artist from Garhwal. His earlier work reflected the influence of Mughul style while his later work can be interpreted as cruder version of Kangra traditions. 

Himself a poet, his pictures often carried his own verses and exact dates. One of the splendid works of this region was the work of art based on Shiva-Parvati. 

Pahari Paintings : Chamba

Pahari Paintings : Chamba

Located in Himachal Pradesh, the painting traditions of the region showed close resemblance to the Mughal style. The influence of Deccan and Gujarat were also conspicuous in the paintings.

In the late 17th century, influence of Basohli style became evident however it was lost out to the Guler painting tradition, which became dominant in the region. Dashavatara, attributed to the mid 18th century, executed by artist Mahesh was a significant work from this school.

The illustration work based on the on the life of Krishna and the story of Usha and Annirudha from the Bhagavata Purana were other notable works of art. 

Besides paintings, decoration on rumals (coverlets) usually bearing a design related to the life of Krishna were brilliantly executed by court artists before they were worked in fine silk by ladies of Zenana (Chamber of females). 

Pahari paintings emphasized on love and devotional themes


Unlike Rajasthani Paintings, which centered on portraitures, and depiction of splendid court life, Pahari paintings emphasized on love and devotional themes. 

The royalty commissioned texts based on love themes and stories of Krishna. Gita Govinda (the Divine Love Song) and the tenth book of the Bhagavata Purana (the stories of Krishna) provided evergreen themes. While the Aranya Kanda, and the Lanka Kanda of Ramayana epic were repeatedly illustrated. 

One of the early notable works of art was Devi Mahatmya manuscript, painted at Kangra in 1552. Besides this, Rasamanjiri, a 15th century Sanskrit text, penned down by Bhanudaata of Mithila in Bihar, was a significant illustrated work.

The heroes (nayakas) and heroines (nayikas) and beauteous maidens of this rhetoric text personified subtle ecstasies of romance. 

MINERALS in Kathua

MINERALS in Kathua

The most important Minerals in the district are Cement Grade Lime Stone in Basohli area. 

Low Grade Iron deposits in Lohai-Malhar block, 

Gypsum deposits in village Daulla in Basohli tehsil 

and 

Slates in Duggan nallah and near Sewa Nallah in Bani block. 

Another mineral found near siare in Bani block is Quartzide used in glass making. 

Bentonite is available in Surrara area of Hiranagar tehsil. 

Fullersearth, useful in drugs, cement and plaster is also available in the district. 

Alum exists in Serai nallah near Ramkote and Ujh river. 

Clay of various colours and varieties is also found at many places.

Kathua District

Kathua District

Known as Gateway of Jammu & Kashmir State, Kathua district lies in South-East of the State. It is located 32.17' to 32.55' north latitude and 75.32' to 75.76' east longitude. Spread over an area of 2651 sq.Kms constituting 1.9 per cent of the total area of the State, the district has a population of over 4.92 lakh as per 1991 estimates. The sex ratio as per 1981 census was 917 females per 1000 males and density of population 1.86 persons per Sq.kms as per 1991 estimates. The district has literacy percentage of 31.90. 

For administrative, the district has been divided into four tehsils namely Kathua,Hiranagar,Basholi and Billawar. District broadly comprises three distinct zones. These can be described as border, kandi and hilly areas.The two main rivers of the district are Ravi and Ujh which are major contributors to the prestigious Ravi-Tawi Irrigation Complex. 

As regards the main ethnic groups,hindus constitutes 91% of the district while Muslims form 7% and Sikh 2% of the population.The most important minerals in the district are cement grade lime stone in Basholi.

Dogri is the main language spoken by the people of the district. There are a number of Monuments in the district like towering forts and magnificent places at kathua, Lakhanpur, Jasmergarh (Hiranagar),Jasrota,Ramkote,Bhadu and Basholi.

RAVI RIVER --- UJH RIVER --- SEWA RIVER

RIVERS 

RAVI RIVER: It is the most important rivers of the District. It rises from the Himalayan ranges. The length of the river in the district is approximately 55Km. And the average width  is about 400 Metres. The main tributory of the Ravi river is Sewa   river.  Ranjit Sagar Dam is built on this river.   

The water of Ravi river is utilised for drinking purposes. The River ravi is the major contributory to the prestigious  Ravi Tawi Irrigation Complex (RTIC). The River ravi feeds a number of small canals and Khuls and is the main source of water for irrigation of agricultural land of the district. It also helps in transportation of timber from hills to plains in bulk besides of providing construction material like sand and stones etc.

UJH RIVER: The river Ujh is the 2nd most important river of the district.  It rises from the Domal Structure of SEOJDHAR of middle Himalayan ranges. The length of the river in the district is 65 Km. And the average width  is about 1.2 Kms. The main tributory of the Ujh river is NAAZ and BHINNI Nallahs of Billawar.    

Ujh Barrage   is constructed on this river at Village Jasrota.    The water of Ujh river is utilised for drinking purposes.   The River Ujh feeds a number of small canals and Khuls and its water is utilized  for irrigation of agricultural land of the district. It also helps in transportation of timber from hills to plains in bulk besides of providing construction material like sand and stones etc.

SEWA RIVER: The river Sewa in Basohli rises from the Domal Structure of Kali Kundi in the lapse of  Himalayan ranges. The length of the river in the district is 125 Km. And the average width  is about 250 Metres. The famous SEWA HYDEL PROJECT is being constructed on this river at Village Sewa. 

The water of Sewa  river is utilised for drinking purposes. The River Sewa feeds a number of small canals and Khuls and its water is utilized  for irrigation of agricultural land of the district. It also helps in transportation of timber from hills to plains in bulk besides of providing construction material like sand and stones etc. It is the main tribifucatiory of River RAVI. 

Billawar Forest Division

Billawar Forest Division  

This division has an area of 642.47 Sq. Kms. The Main tree species are Deodar, Chir, Oak, Kail, Khair and other broad leaved species. Division is divided into 4 territorial ranges Viz. Billawar, Bani, Basohli and Ramkote. There is One Soil Conservation Range. 

Kathua Forest Division

Kathua Forest Division 

This division has an area of 467.27 Sq. Kms. The Main tree species are Bamboo, Chir, Khair and other broad leaved species. According to survey, the Kathua Forests are rich with 178 plant species, 10 species of wild animals, 71 bird species and a large No. of speices of snakes and lizards. Division is divided into 3 territorial ranges Viz. Kathua, Samba and Jasrota. 

There is One Check Post Range (Lakhanpur). Total No. of compartments in the division is 267. There is one Soil Conservation Range.

Alongwith this division there is one Social Forestory Division and two Centrally sponsored Forestry Projects  Viz. Thein DAM-I and Thein Dam-II operating in the district.  
      
Recently, Forest Protection Force has been installed in the district headed by Deputy Director, Forest Protection Force assisted by One Asstt. Director, 6 Inspectors and 70 Guards. 

Treaty of Amristar between the British Government and Gulab singh-signed on March 16, 1846

Treaty of Amristar between the British Government and Gulab singh-signed on March 16, 1846

History

Jammu and Kashmir came into being as a single political and geographical entity following the Treaty of Amristar between the British Government and Gulab singh signed on March 16, 1846. The Treaty handed over the control of the Kashmir State to the Dogra ruler of Jammu who had earlier annexed Ladakh. Thus a new State comprising three distinct regions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh was formed with Maharaja Gulab Singh as its founder ruler. 

The feudal dispensation in the State, however, was too harsh for the people to live under and towards the end of a hundred years of this rule when their Indian brethren were fighting for independence from the British under the inspiring leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Kashmiris led by a towering personality, the Sher-I-Kashmir Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, rose against the autocracy. The autocratic rule came down heavily on the people’s freedom movement. However, the people laid their lives in the cause of freedom and to uphold the ideals of secularism, equality, democracy and brotherhood. 


Bani Niabat- pending demand of the people of Bani area to up grade the status of Niabat to Tehsil

Bani Niabat- pending demand of the people of Bani area to up grade the status of Niabat to Tehsil

Bani is situated at a distance of 88 kms from Basohli town (Sub-Divisional Headquarter) and is linked by a motoable road which, however sometimes gets closed during winter due to heavy snowfall. Bani is a small but beautiful valley surrounded by mountains and is having tremendous potential as a tourist attraction. It is a base camp for Trekkers for going to different adventure/religious destinations. 

Presently, Bani is a territorial Niabat of Tehsil Bosohli and there was a long pending demand of the people of Bani area to up grade the status of Niabat to Tehsil. After becoming a Tehsil, the people of this hilly part of District Kathua are likely to be benefited to a large extent particularly after commissioning of the Basohli-Bani-Bhaderwah road, which further connects the valley over Synthan Pass, the economic activity in this area will get a quantum jump.

Bani Niabat is further divided into two C.D. Blocks namely, Bani and Duggan with headquarters at Bani and Duggan. The areas falling within Bani Niabat are well bifurcated from rest of Tehsil Basohli through Banjal Pass which as earlier stated, sometimes, does remain closed during winter due to heavy snowfall.

Jasrota Wildlife Sanctuary, Kathua- River Ujh near Jasrota Village-Cheetal (Spotted Dear)- Barking Dear, Wildboar, Rhesus Monkey, Jackal, Porcepine-Red Jungle Fowl, Peafowl, Jungle Bush Quail- Green Pigeon, Blue Rock Pigeon, Black Partridge, Wood Peckers, Bablers- Mallard, Pin Tail, Gadwal, Common Teal, Wigeon, common pochard- Python, Cobra, Lizard

Jasrota Wildlife Sanctuary, Ujh,Cheetal,Spotted Dear,Barking Dear, Wildboar, Rhesus Monkey, Jackal, Red Jungle Fowl, Peafowl, Jungle Bush Quail,Green Pigeon, Blue Rock Pigeon, Black Partridge, Wood Peckers, Bablers,Mallard, Pin Tail, Gadwal,


Kathua District has 1 Wildlife Sanctuary at Jasrota with an area of 10.04 Sq. Kms. The Sanctuary has Wild Animals like Leopard, Deer, wild boar and snakes. 13 aquatic birds are reported to occur in Ujh Baraage near Jasrota. Wild Life Sanctuary is looked after by Wildlife Warden, Kathua.

Jasrota Wildlife Sanctuary lies on the Bank of River Ujh near Jasrota Village. The Sanctuary derives its name from the Historic Jasrota Fort. Earlier it was declared as Game Reserve under he provision of Old Game Act of 1942 by Late Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir. It came under the Administrative control of Jammu & Kashmir department of Wildlife Protection in 1984.

Area : 10.04 Sq. Kms.
Altitudinal Range : 336 to 520 Mts. Above M.S.L.
Rainfall : The average annual rainfall is 1000 mm.


Fauna : The area sustains a variety of Animals. Cheetal (Spotted Dear)  is the Key  Mammal species. Barking Dear, Wildboar, Rhesus Monkey, Jackal, Porcepine include the most common species of the area.

Avifauna : Red Jungle Fowl, Peafowl, Jungle Bush Quail are among the principle bird species. Other   species include Green Pigeon, Blue Rock Pigeon, Black Partridge, Wood Peckers and Bablers.

Water Fowl : During the rainy season Ujh barrage attracts a number of water birds. They  include Mallard, Pin Tail, Gadwal, Common Teal, Wigeon and common pochard etc.

Reptiles : Python, Cobra and Lizard are reptelian denizens found in the Sanctuary.

Trekking Routes in Kathua - Bhaderwah - Kishtwar- (Bani-Sarthal-Bhaderwah Trek)- (Bani-Khajar-Bani)- (Bani-Sundroon-Bani)


Trekking Routes in Kathua - Bhaderwah - Kishtwar- (Bani-Sarthal-Bhaderwah Trek)- (Bani-Khajar-Bani)-  (Bani-Sundroon-Bani) 

There are numerous thrilling trekking routes mostly in and around Bani area which pass through virgin mountain areas of beauty. Some of these routes are

(a) Bani-Sarthal-Bhaderwah Trek - It is 53 Kms Trek. 
(b) Bani-Khajar-Bani - It is 3 hours trek. 
(c) Bani-Sundroon-Bani - It is soft trek upto Sundroon 12 Kms.away. 

Bhadarwahi culture- Bhadarwahi language- Jatrain celebrated - Bhadarwahi (Chhloi)- ‘kud’ celebrated -"Kul-Devta"-"Chailla"- Dhol, Bansri, Nigara, Narsinga-- Bhalasa- Chinta- Drab, Panchai, Chiralla and Bhlara


Bhadarwahi culture- Bhadarwahi language- Jatrain celebrated - Bhadarwahi (Chhloi)- ‘kud’ celebrated -"Kul-Devta"-"Chailla"- Dhol, Bansri, Nigara, Narsinga-- Bhalasa- Chinta- Drab, Panchai, Chiralla and Bhlara

Bhadarwahi language

Bhadarwah has its own rich culture. It has itw own language called Bhadarwahi language. It has its own registered body called "Bhadarwahi Sanstha". The main feature of this language is that word ‘Ji" is used after every sentence. The Bhadarwahi people are very hospitable. They believe in "Atithi Devo Bhavti" (Guest is the messenger of God). 

Agriculture is the main occupation and that too on co-operative basis. They do all the agricultural activities jointly and while at work they sing and dance in the fields. They sing different songs for different activities. 

"Jatrain"

 The main agriculture season here is from April to August and from August to October is a leisure time. In this period they celebrate different Malas called "Jatrain" This process starts from Raksha Bandan and ends on the full moon day of November. These ‘Jatrain’ are celebrated villagewise or in some case two/three village celebrate on same day separately. People invite their kith and kins, and friends to their residences. 

A delicious food is cooked in every house and a special dish called in Bhadarwahi (Chhloi) is cooked, which is eaten with honey and ghee. In this evening a ‘kud’ is celebrated in honour of the clan diety call "Kul-Devta". The whole process is executed under the guidance and direction of "Chailla". A bone fire is list and people dance around it through out night at the tune of local musical instruments called Dhol, Bansri, Nigara, Narsinga etc. Early in the morning they raise slogans in honour of the diety and ‘Chailla’ bare footed enters the red charcoals of the bonefire lit in the evening and baptizes the people and forecast the good or bad events of the area to come. These yatras and Malas continue for 2-3 months. 


"Malcha"
  
These mala’s begin from Bhalasa and ends at Chinta area by celebrating "Malcha". Besides these Malas of Bhadarwah valley several Malas are held in honer of gods and goddesses on mountain and hills. 

In the month of August a Mala is celebrated at Dandasai in Rokali area in honour of Dandasan Mata in which people of Drab, Panchai, Chiralla and Bhlara participate.

Kailash yatra

 The most famous Bhadarwah’s Yatra is Kailash yatra. It is celebrated in honor of ‘Vaski Nag’. This comes in the month of August or September. Chharies from differ Vasuki temples start i.e. Gatha, Nagar, Nalthi, Shantan temple at Sartingal. Kalar Mandir and Dugan in Bani area. Thousand upon thousand people participate in these chharies they have a holy dip in the Vasuki lake. 

It takes them three days to perform this ritual. There are many other festivals which are celebrated during winter season. The main are the following:- 

1. Dander Kundhu

This festival is celebrated by the children at the advent of spring season. 

2. Kanchoth:- 

This is the most famous festival of married ladies. On this day they keep fast and during the day they make-up themselves with their best dresses and ornament and then they worship Lord Shiva for the long life of their husbands. They sing and dance to please the Lord Shiva. Thy sing a typical song called "Ghurahi" in Bhadarwahi language (A ballod) and dance in a circle. 

Hundreds of years back Sufism also spreaded in the area and there are many Ziarats in the area such as Ziarat at Bangla Nala, Munch Maror at Nagar (Takya Bazar) etc. where people of all costs, creed and faith pay their obeisance in order to fulfil their desired wishes. 

Late Lala Shiv Charan Gupta, BJP MLA, Udhampur- legendary and undaunted leader who represented the voice of the people of Jammu fearlessly and with courage for six decades


Late Lala Shiv Charan Gupta, BJP MLA, Udhampur- legendary and undaunted leader who represented the voice of the people of Jammu fearlessly and with courage for six decades

CM and several leaders condoles his death 
Shiv Charan Gupta passes away 
3/16/2008 1:37:31 AM 

Jammu, Mar 15: Lala Shiv Charan Gupta, BJP MLA died yesterday at the age of 84 was cremated at Devika Crematorium ground Udhampur. A large number of people, leaders including workers those from BJP were present during the cremation ceremony. 

Leaders and other social organizations have condoled the death of veteran leader and former MLA, Lala Shiv Charan Gupta, who breathed his last at GMC Hospital, he was 84. 

His last rites were performed at Devika Ghat, Udhampur on Saturday. 

Lala Shiv Charan Gupta was born on March 3, 1925 at Udhampur and was elected to the state assembly four times. 

Congress leaders Pt. Mangat Ram Sharma and Gulchain Singh Charak, Prof. Bhim Singh, Balwant Mankotia, Ajay Sadhotra and T.S. Wazir were also present during the cremation of Lal Shiv Charan Gupta

Meanwhile, Chief Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad has condoled the demise of former legislator, Lala Shiv Charan Gupta who breathed his last at the Government Medical College Hospital, Jammu last night where he had been admitted for treatment. 

In a message, the Chief Minister recalled the contribution of late Gupta as a legislator and political leader. He said the late leader would be remembered for his services to the people.Meanwhile, National Conference chief patron Dr. Farooq Abdullah and party president Omar Abdullah have expressed deep shock over the sad demise of former legislator and senior BJP leader Lala Shiv Charan Gupta and extended heartfelt condolence to his family members. 

Recalling the contribution of the deceased leader in ameliorating the condition of people of Udhampur, Dr Abdullah in a statement said that Lala Shiv Charan Gupta worked through out his life for the welfare of the people. He said that, his service to the society, would be remembered by coming generations for a long time. Paying rich tributes to the departed leader, NC president Omar Abdullah also highlighted the contribution of Senior BJP leader Lala Shiv Charan Gupta. 

Minister for Health and Medical Education Pt. Mangat Ram Sharma today visited the residence of Lala Shivcharan Gupta at Udhampur and condoled his demise.He expressed deep shock and grief over the sad demise of former MLA Lala Shivcharan Gupta whom he described a renowned political and social leader who throughout his life served for the welfare of people. He said the vacuum created by the demise of Lala Shivcharan is difficult to fill up.Meanwhile Minister of state for Health and Medical Education Peer Mohammad Hussain has also expressed grief over the passing away of Shivcharan Gupta. 

Minister of State for Finance and Revenue Aijaz Ahmad Khan has expressed grief and sorrow over the sad demise of EX-MLA Lala Shiv Charan Gupta. Aijaz expressed his sympathies with the bereaved family and prayed for eternal peace to the departed soul. 



Farooq, Omar grieved over Gupta's demise 
3/16/2008
ann
JAMMU, MAR 15

National Conference chief patron Dr. Farooq Abdullah and party president Omar Abdullah have expressed deep shock over the sad demise of former legislator and senior BJP leader Lala Shiv Charan Gupta and extended heartfelt condolence to his family members. The former legislature and senior BJP leader breathed his last at the Government Medical College Hospital, Jammu last night. 

Recalling the contribution of the deceased leader in ameliorating the condition of people of Udhampur, Dr Abdullah in a statement said that Lala Shiv Charan Gupta worked through out his life for the welfare of the people. He said that, his service to the society, would be remembered by coming generations for a long time. Paying rich tributes to the departed leader, NC president Omar Abdullah also highlighted the contribution of Senior BJP leader Lala Shiv Charan Gupta. He expressed sympathy with the bereaved family and prayed for peace to the departed soul.


Panthers Party Condoles Death of Shri Shiv Charan Gupta
By Jagdev Singh

An emergency meeting of the full executive meeting was held under the leader of Prof. Bhim Singh, Chairman of JKNPP was held at JKNPP Headquarters, Jammu to condole unfortunate and shocking death of a great veteran BJP leader Shri Shiv Charan Gupta. 

In the resolution the Executive Committee described Shri Shiv Charan Gupta as a legendary and undaunted leader who represented the voice of the people of Jammu fearlessly and with courage for six decades. The Executive felt that in his death people of Jammu have lost one of the great champions of their cause and prayed for peace in the heaven for the departed soul. 

Prof. Bhim Singh expressed deep shock in his death with whom he had 'love and war' relation for years and who (Shri Shiv Charan Gupta) always stood with his (Bhim) cause in his battles against the barbaric rulers. 


Padma Shree Shamima Azad- Wife of Ghulam Nabi Azad- Latest hit song, Janat-e-Benazir, composed by Bhajan Sopori


Padma Shree Shamima Azad- Wife of Ghulam Nabi Azad- Latest hit song, Janat-e-Benazir, composed by Bhajan Sopori


During his CM times, Ghulam Nabi Azad released 10 books on Kashmir published by a local publishing house, Gulshan Books and presented awards to various persons for excellence in their areas of activity.

Prominent among the recipients of the awards was Padma Shree Shamima Azad whose contribution to Kashmiri music has already won laurels for her. She has taken the Kashmiri music to new heights and earned for herself unparalleled individuality in cultural and music circles of the country. 

Her latest song, Janat-e-Benazir, composed by famous music composer Bhajan Sopori is a rage with people. 

Others who were awarded today include historian and writer, Prof. Fida Muhammad Hassnain, cultural activist, G. R. Hasrat Gadda, Director Tourism, Kashmir, Farooq Ahmad Shah, former Sessions Judge and writer, Ghulam Nabi Gowhar, prominent music personality, late Sheikh Abdul Aziz whose award was received by his son and prominent journalist, Sheikh Mushtaq, Secretary, Academy of Art, Culture & Languages, Dr. Rafiq Masoodi, social activist, Nighat Shafi and media persons associated with local TV channels, Zahid Manzoor, Mushtaq Ahmad Khan, Shahnaz Rashid, 

Mr Azad awarded ten writers for excellence in literature at a function held at SKICC attended among others by Padama Shree Shamim Azad.

The books awarded that year include Gian Singh Pagoch’s Mahatma Vidhur (Dogri)


Padma Shree Shamima Azad- Wife of Ghulam Nabi Azad- Latest hit song, Janat-e-Benazir, composed by Bhajan Sopori

Kishtwar National Park-- for brown bear Ursus arctos, leopard Panthera pardus (V), snow leopard P. uncia (E), Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster (V), hangul Cervus elaphus hanglu (E) and ibex Capra ibex sibirica


Kishtwar National Park-- for brown bear Ursus arctos, leopard Panthera pardus (V), snow leopard P. uncia (E), Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster (V), hangul Cervus elaphus hanglu (E) and ibex Capra ibex sibirica


Kishtwar National Park
Built In The establishment of the national park (Bacha, 1986). 


Description 
Physical Features The national park encompasses the cachments of the Kiar, Nanth and Kibar nalas, all of which drain south-west into Marwa River which joins the Chenab River just above Kishtwar Town. The terrain is generally rugged and steep, with narrow valleys bounded by high ridges opening out in their upper glacial parts. The area lies in the Central Crystalline belt of the Great Himalaya. Rocks are strongly folded in places and composed mainly of granite, gneiss and schist, with the occasional bed of marble. The shallow, slightly alkaline soils are mostly alluvial with gravel deposits (Kurt, 1976; Bacha, 1986).

Climate The influence of the monsoon is weak. Mean annual rainfall at Palmar and Sirshi (1,761m), located near the periphery of the national park, is 827mm and 741mm, respectively. Preciptation is maximal and in excess of 100mm per month in March and April, and again in July and August. Most snow falls in December and January when the whole area becomes snowbound. Mean maximum and minimum temperatures recorded at Sirshi are 13*C and -7*C in January and 35*C and 11*C in July, respectively (Kurt, 1976; Bacha, 1986).

Vegetation Based on the revised classification of Champion and Seth (1968), some 13 vegetation types are represented (Bacha, 1986). In general, silver fir Abies pindrow and spruce Picea wallichiana, mixed with cedar Cedrus deodara and blue pine Pinus griffithii are predominant from 2,400m to 3,000m. 

Notable is the small expanse of chilgoza pina P. gerardiana in the Dachan Range. At lower altitudes (1,700-2,400m) occur nearly pure stands of cedar and blue pine, and moist temperate deciduous forest, represented by horsechestnut Aesculus indica, walnut Juglans regia, maple Acer spp., poplar Populus ciliata, hazel Corylus cornuta, bird cherry Padus cornuta, ash Fraxinus cornuta and yew Taxus wallichiana. The sub-alpine zone, from 3,000m to the tree line at 3,700m, supports mostly silver fir and birch Betula utilis forest and this merges with birch-rhododendron Rhododendron campanulatum scrub, above which is alpine pasture.

Fauna Faunistically, the area is reputedly among the richest in the Himalaya (Ranjitsinh, 1979). Bacha (1986) lists 14 species of large mammals that are present. Notable species include brown bear Ursus arctos, leopard Panthera pardus (V), snow leopard P. uncia (E), Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster (V), hangul Cervus elaphus hanglu (E) and ibex Capra ibex sibirica. 

In addition to those listed, wild boar Sus scrofa, Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjac, serow Capricornis sumatraensis, Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus, bharal Pseudois nayaur and possibly markhor Capra falconeriare present (Kurt, 1976, 1978; Ranjitsinh, 1979; Rodgers, in prep.). The brown bear population is perhaps the largest found anywhere in the Himalaya (Ranjitsinh, 1979). The size of the hangul population is unknown, but it may be limited to only a few animals (Kurt, 1978).

Some 28 common species of birds are listed by Bacha (1986). Among the pheasants, Himalayan monal Lophophorus impejanus and koklass Pucrasia macrolopha are present, but the status of Himalayan snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis and western tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus (E) is not known (Rodgers, in prep.).

Cultural Heritage Racial groups include Thakurs, Kashmiris, Gujars, Rajputs and Brahmans (Bacha, 1986).

Local Human Population There are no permanent settlements but some 115 families of nomadic graziers, with 15,000 head of livestock, and an unspecified number of families from nearby villages, with 10,000 head, have grazing rights in the national park. Some agriculture is practised in peripheral areas (Bacha, 1986).

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The area is a potential tourist attraction but there are almost no facilities at present. Forest rest houses exist at Ekhala and Sirshi. An additional two, with catering facilities for tourists, are planned for the tract between Sirshi and Yurdu (Bacha, 1986).

Scientific Research and Facilities None

Conservation Management Kishtwar is arguably the most important cis-Himalayan area in the state on account of its fairly large size and diverse mammalian fauna, including a number of rare and endangered species. Its forests were exploited to their severe detriment up until 1948, since when logging has been scientifically managed and finally ceased with the establishment of the national park (Bacha, 1986).

The national park has recently been earmarked as one of seven snow leopard reserves under a project launched by Central Government and aimed at conserving the species, its prey populations and its fragile mountain habitat (ref.). 

A management plan has been prepared for the period 1986-1987 to 1989-90 (Bacha, 1986), according to which the national park will be zoned into core and buffer areas of 27,500ha and 15,000ha, respectively. No grazing will be allowed in the core zone; existing grazing rights being compensated for through payment and provision of alternative grazing grounds. 
  
Location 
Doda District, 40 km North-East of Kishtwar Town 
  
Visiting Hours 
April To October 
  
Attractions 
Tigers, Leopards, Deer 

Kishtwar: Kishat Rishi-- Kishaswar -- Kashthavata - Ziarat Zain-Shah-Sahib, Farid-ud-Din Sahib, Hazrat Asrar-ud-Din Sahib, Athara Bhuja Devi temple and Chandi Mata temple

Kishtwar: Kishat Rishi-- Kishaswar -- Kashthavata
- Ziarat Zain-Shah-Sahib, Farid-ud-Din Sahib, Hazrat Asrar-ud-Din Sahib, Athara Bhuja Devi temple and Chandi Mata temple



The present name, related with "Kishat Rishi" who stayed here, is the modified version of earlier name of Kishaswar. 

Located about 232 Kms. from Jammu at a height of 5.360 feet, Kishtwar in its ancient form Kashthavata, is first referred to in the Rajatarangini during the reign of Raja Kalsa of Kashmir (A.D.1063-89), when "Uttamaraja", the ruler of Kashthavata visited the court of Kashmiri king in company with several other hill chiefs to pay their respects to the Raja. 

The place endowed with dense forests of deodar, fir and pine is treasure of scenic beauty. The place has rich wild-life like snow-deer, leopard, Neel Gai and musk-deer. 

There are high altitude mountains ranging between 20,000 feet to 21,000 feet like Num Kum, Burmah and Barnag. It offers tremendous scope for pilgrim tourism also as some important shrines are located in the area. 

These include Ziarat Zain-Shah-Sahib, Farid-ud-Din Sahib, Hazrat Asrar-ud-Din Sahib, Athara Bhuja Devi temple and Chandi Mata temple. 
  

Attractions in Kishtwar (Jammu province): NAQSEEN, ZUMUM PALMAR, PADDAR, BHANDARKOT, DACHHAN, WARWAN, MUGHAL MAIDAN

Attractions in Kishtwar (Jammu province): NAQSEEN, ZUMUM PALMAR, PADDAR, BHANDARKOT, DACHHAN, WARWAN, MUGHAL MAIDAN




NAQSEEN 
Naqseen, full of scenic beauty, is located on the east of Kishtwar town, which is surrounded by forests. This place has been named after the Budhist Preacher Naqseen. 

DACHHAN 
Is a part of Marwah Niabat. From here, the route originates for high mountains of Bramah, Vaishno, Mahesh and Sickle North. It is rich in trout fish. Mathralla is the most beautiful spot which has springs and a rock statue of a cow. It is from the feet that the water gushes out. There is a national park also.

WARWAN 
Is a beautiful valley adjoining Dachhan. It spreads from villages Hanzi and Inshan. The valley has good spots like Tuiller, Nopachi, Marwah, Tata Pani, Dashbal and Inshan and it is connected with Kashmir via Margan top (13,000 feet) which leads to village Inshan from a track that also goest to Pahalgam. These areas are rich in trout fish, having unique rainbow colour, each weighing 2kgs. to 6 kgs. Nopachi could serve as a base camp for expeditions to Nunkun via Tata Pani which has a hot water spring and is good to have bath in sulpher containing water for skin diseases and rheumatic pains. Marwah river passes just in the centre of the valley, which otherwise contains meadows. These meadows are used for grazing the cattle by nomadic Bakarwals. 

MUGHAL MAIDAN 
About 24 Kms. from Kishtwar is named Mughal Maidan as it is claimed that Mughals had suffered heavy casualities at this place when they attacked Kishtwar via Synthan and Singhpora. One of the beautiful trek starts from here which goest to Kashmir valley via Singhpora.It passes through at a height of 11,570 feet and culminates at Wello near Kokarnag. Mughal Maidan is situated on the bank of Chhatroo river. The slopes adjacent Mughal Maidan are full of thick forests which are rich in wild-life. 

BHANDARKOT 
An ideal place for rock climbing, is also the confluence of the rivers Chander and Bhaga coming from Paddar, Marwah and Chhatroo. From this place downwards, Chander Bhaga is called as Chenab river. This spot serves as a take off point for trek to Dachhan, Nunkun, Bramah, Marwah and Warwan. 

ZUMUM PALMAR 
Zumum Palmar located five kms. on hill-side from Kuriya Palmar, is a beautiful spot amidst natural scenery, lushgreen meadows and dense forests. Ziarat Sharief of Zen Shah Shaib is situated near this spot which is visited by a large number of devotees from the district. 

PADDAR 
Paddar, the area with rich wild-life is full of natural beauty. The famous sapphire/ruby mines are located in this area. It has hot springs and a river which is ideal for cannoing. One trek goes to Zanskar via Machail. There are virgin treks having lot of potential. 
  

How and why Muslim Conference was changed into National Conference? by Zahir-ud-Din

 How and why Muslim Conference was changed into National Conference? by Zahir-ud-Din


source: http://www.risingkashmir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=24350

First blunder

How and why Muslim Conference was changed into National Conference?


Zahir-ud-Din

The process of rechristening Muslim Conference (MC) started in 1933. The annual session of the organisation was held at Mirpur (now in Pakistan-administered Kashmir) on September from 15 to 17 1933.

Several resolutions were passed on the concluding day of the session.  One of the resolutions sought participation of non-Muslims in the freedom struggle. The resolution was, by and large, welcomed by the members. However, some members described it a conspiracy against Muslim unity. The resolution also evoked reaction from Dr Sir Muhammad Iqbal. The great poet in his letter (dated October 12, 1933) urged Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah to ensure unity of Muslims without fail.

The conversion process was formally launched during the sixth annual session of the MC held on March 25-27, 1938 at Jammu.  In his presidential address, Sheikh Abdullah stressed the need for `responsible government.’ Several resolutions were passed. It was decided to change the name of the organisation to ensure participation of non-Muslims in the struggle.

A meeting was held at Srinagar. Muhammad Umar Bhat suggested creation of a new organisation `National Congress’. However, this was severely opposed. But Bhat created the National Congress and some people including Raghunath Vaishnavi, Seth Kishori Lal, Madan Lal, Ved Prakash and Ali Muhammad Bhat joined it.

On June 24, 1938 a special meeting of the working committee of MC was held at Srinagar. Most of the members severely opposed creation of National Conference (NC). Moulvi Abdullah Vakil accused Sheikh Abdullah of a sell-out.  Editor of Pasbaan, Syed Meraj-ud-Din Ahmad said: “The oath taken by Sheikh Abdullah, Dr Peshan, Ram Nath Shastri, Jia Lal Kilam and Kashap Bandhu to break the MC has been fulfilled.”

Well-known leader from Jammu Chowdhary Ghulam Abbas severely criticized the move. He said: “NC will become a mistress of Indian National Congress.” Sheikh Abdullah listened patiently but rejected the apprehensions of the members as unfounded. Finally Abbas consented to the conversion on the following conditions:

NC shall have no truck with the Congress; the inclusion of non-Muslims should not harm the identity of the Muslims; Hindus and Muslims cannot unite. However, they can work together to achieve political goals; we hope Sheikh Abdullah shall not take any step to harm the interests of Muslims.

Sheikh Abdullah readily agreed to these conditions. Soon, Sheikh Abdullah and other leaders were arrested in connection with ‘responsible government’ agitation. In February the leaders were released and by the end of May the stage was all set for the `infamous conversion’.

On June 11 NC was suggested as the new name of the organisation. Some members stood up to express their views but Sheikh Abdullah did not allow them to do so. Moulvi Abdullah Vakil offered resistance. He said: “I have a right to express my views. I do not accept your decision.”

Sheikh Abdullah told him to walk out of the room. Ghulam Ahmad Ganie, Sheikh Ahmad Din, Mirwaiz Ghulam Nabi Hamdani and seven others also walked out along with Vakil.

This is how Muslim Conference was taken to the altar for ensuring participation of non-Muslims in the freedom struggle. Surprisingly non-Muslims lived comfortably in Dogra rule. They were loyal to the Dogra rulers and missed no opportunity to subject Muslims to persecution. But, Sher-e-Kashmir saw a role for them in the freedom struggle. But contrary to his expectations, the newly formed National Conference (NC), however, evoked lukewarm response from the non-Muslims. Attempts to revive the Muslim Conference (MC) started immediately.

The idea was discussed in detail by senior NC workers including Ghulam Muhammad Bakshi. Munshi Naseer-ud-Din (Editor Albarq) discussed it with Sheikh as well. It is believed that Sheikh agreed in principle with the members. He is believed to have told Munshi Naseer: “You go ahead. I will work as an ordinary member of the MC. I will not accept its leadership.” One such meeting was held in the lawns of erstwhile Teachers’ Training School at Magarmal Bagh.

In 1944 when Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah visited Kashmir, the NC hosted a reception in his honour. Ghulam Mohi-ud-Din Zahra Hamdanai posed three questions to the Quaid. The Quaid answered the questions politely. Question No 1: Is creation of Pakistan possible in presence of overwhelming majority of Hindus of India?  The Quaid replied: “If De Veer can separate Ireland from Britain, why should not 10 crore Muslims succeed in creating a state of their own?”

Question No 2: “If Pakistan comes into existence, will it not be a poor country?” Quaid replied: “No. Not at all. It is better to live in a shabby hut than live in a mansion in insecure India.”

Question No 3: “Keeping the Muslim Majority population of the state in view which party can serve the interests of Muslims better. NC or MC?” The Quaid replied: “Apparently NC. But can you tell me how many non-Muslims are members of the party?”

This stunned the NC workers. Hamdani had to eat a humble pie. Someone from the crowd cried, “Budh Singh, Kashap Bandhu.” This was greeted with laughter by the people present much to the discomfort of the NC workers.

The Quaid said: “Had non-Muslims joined the NC, the Maharaja’s government would have succumbed in seven days.”

As the time passed the non-Muslims in the NC started giving sleepless nights to Sheikh Abdullah. He had to shave off his beard. Soon after his `trusted friend’ Kashap Bandhu wrote an editorial in Martand and criticized Sheikh Abdullah for taking out Millad processions. A frightened Sheikh succumbed. In 1943 Sheikh decided not to take out the procession. This gave the newly formed MC a chance to prove its mettle. A Millad procession sponsored by MC evoked overwhelming response.

Raghunath Vaishnavi who was the general secretary of National Congress, an organisation that later merged into NC also deserted him. In 1953 he joined the Political Conference, an organisation that stood for total merger of Jammu Kashmir into Pakistan.

Another friend, Prem Nath Bazaz also parted ways. He jointly owned the daily Hamdard with Sheikh Abdullah. The partnership was broken and Bazaz became his `worst enemy’.  On June 10, 1947, Bazaz wrote an editorial in Hamdard. It read: “The Hindus do not like NC. However, some Hindus have joined it not because they love it but for the hatred it has exhibited against Muslims of India. The inclusion of a handful of Hindus in NC does not make it a representative of the minorities. The Hindus and Sikhs praise NC in public because they believe that it is working against the interests of Muslims...”

In 1975 when Sheikh Abdullah signed the infamous Indira-Abdullah accord, his `friend’ Kashap Bandhu refused to join his government. The only non-Muslim who remained with was Budh Singh.

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

Chandi-Ashok, the fearsome and loathsome destroyer of Kalinga, or the Dhamma-Ashok, the upholder of justice and equity

Chandi-Ashok, the fearsome and loathsome destroyer of Kalinga, or the Dhamma-Ashok, the upholder of justice and equity 


This distant tragedy is both germane to and with far reaching implications for  Non-Violent people’s movements all over India, but particularly in the Mineral rich Belt of Dandkaaranya, for protecting livelihoods and dispossession from land and other natural resources (Jal, Jamin aur Jungle – Water, Land and Forests), and how the Indian State chooses to deal with it. Till now it has chosen to deal with disproportionate & brutal force these peaceful struggles. Unfortunately, Indian State has a very rich & colourful legacy to fall back upon. 

Mahabharat has a story of how Khandav Van, in the vicinity of present day Delhi – the seat of power, was destroyed for growth & development (GDP) by the then Kuru dynasty. Kuru, an invading clan, had a ongoing feud with Naga people (indigenous tribes of India), who resisted their unwanted, forceful & bloody encroachment. 

Arjuna and Krishna burn the Khandav  van, laughing merrily as they do so while causing death & destruction of humans, animals, forests and water bodies. Is that going to be the role model for today’s Bharatvarsha? Republic of India adopted as its state emblem the seal of Emperor Ashoka. Whether this emblem represents deeds of the Chandi-Ashok, the fearsome & loathsome destroyer of Kalinga, or the Dhamma-Ashok, the upholder of justice & equity, is the epochal question.

Monday, June 14, 2010

A child is, at times, scared of the moon falling upon him and tries to take preventive action

Scientists like Newton could not see it in their times due to lack of knowledge about the structure of matter. He had no clue  about the six Quarks. The .made have simplified it

Unfortunately we confine our  learning to the history of mankind. If such controls were possible, there would be no isotopes. There would be no mavericks. The presence of amvericks and centrifugal forces gives us  avery dynamic, Every planet would either have a circular motion or it would escape from the sun's gravity at speeds in excess of the escape velocity. 

But that does not happen. A child is, at times, scared of the moon falling upon him and tries to take preventive action. It happens more when one is unwell. I experienced something similar as a kind when I had high fever.

Even the  email below beautifully states that while awesome change is wrought outside, the evolutionary processes still act at biological clock speeds

Therefore, while from the point of view of the Homosapiens witnessing the present century, identification shall be a revolutionary deed, history will see it as a small event.  Opposition to it may not find even a passing mention, even though it is desirable to have it.

If identification was not an natural need of all matter-energy-knowledge systems, animals would not resort to it.

I am neither an advocate of fascism nor of democracy- I do not advocate even RFID and unique identification

I am neither an advocate of fascism nor of democracy- I do not advocate even RFID and unique identification 

The world is moving towards Hindlish and other simpler languages.Communication is difficult even with simple words. I do not think we should  make it tougher by using rarely used words and phrases. That is if we are interested in all the members of this group.

I am neither an advocate of fascism nor of democracy. To me democracy is dictatorship of an expressive majority, just as communism is/was that of the proletariat. I do not advocate even RFID and unique identification.  All these are passing traits. 

I think we are unnecessarily worried about a giant, monolithic controlling entity taking over our planet, our lives.This will not happen as long as there is free will amongst the HS. It is this free will, which is not subservient to any form of governance... democracy/ dictatorship, etc. Free will is an  innate property of all systems of this universe. ... living or dead,

As stated so beautifully, 

Highly efficient systems are sensitive to even slight perturbation, there is no slack, and can self destruct. 

Perfect mass can be shatters even by an iota of energy.

Irrespective of whether a controlling / driving force/ system (Govt. and State in this case) allows it or not, there will be opposition and as oppression increases, so will innate opposition to it resulting in a new state.   

Hi do you permit me to call this YC's amendment to Newton's second law ?


Sunday, June 13, 2010

If the hand which is to wield the surgeon’s scalpel itself in rotten with gangrene, how can it self construct?

If the hand which is to wield the surgeon’s scalpel itself in rotten with gangrene, how can it self construct? 


It is only when Indians are abroad that they are shamed into embarrassment about the crass corruption and loot in India. Corruption is the gravest internal & external security threat facing India, not Maoists or Pakistan, and Manmohan would have done well to address it. 


But how can he? If the hand which is to wield the surgeon’s scalpel itself in rotten with gangrene, how can it self construct?

Japan is known to be corrupt. USA and even countries in Europe too are corrupt but only in the rarefied altitude of boardrooms. They have successfully managed to barricade sleaze within the club of  rich and powerful.

Saturday, June 12, 2010

Jammu province--- Saffron, Black cumin, medicinal herbs like banafsha, kahzaban, dhoop, musk, bala, artemesia and belladonna



Jammu province is rich in minerals coal, bauxite, copper, zinc, and lead are abundant. 

Sapphire mines are located at higher elevations in the Papar valley

Semi - precious stones like beryl and aquamarine and crystals like quartz and felopar are also found in the region. 

Riasi has coal, gem stones, gypsum, clay, copper, bauxite, and iron ore.

Though little known, the tableland of Kishtwar is flanked by the high and steep mountains of the "middle mountains" region, the highest point being 4,089 km above sea level.  It has an area of 7,311 sq km. Kistwar is famous for mines of sapphire and rubies. The climate is pleasant and bracing in summer and cold in winter. 

Kishtwar and Bhadarwah, with heavily forested mountains are regular haunts of hunters. They can  hunt  panthers, black and  red bear, wild goat, ibex, musk deer, wolf, barasingha, pig, Himalayan chamois, leopard, etc. In the river beds, swamps and low forests, a variety of winged game-duck, goose, chakor, monal pheasant, partridge and snipe are found in preserves for sportsmen.

Saffron is grown here. Black cumin, medicinal herbs like banafsha, kahzaban, dhoop, musk, bala, artemesia and belladonna are grown in the region. Narcotic herbs are also found. Blankets and  leather  goods of the region are famous.

Auction of corundum (raw sapphires) by Jammu and Kashmir Minerals 480 kg of gem variety Sapphire deposit at Padder, in Doda district of Jammu

Auction of corundum (raw sapphires) by Jammu and Kashmir Minerals
480 kg of gem variety Sapphire deposit at Padder, in Doda district of Jammu

source: http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/life/2008/06/20/stories/2008062050010100.htm


High up in the treacherous Himalayan highlands of Padder, in Doda district of Jammu and Kashmir, the world’s best sapphire is present in abundance. However, extreme geographical conditions and lack of resources have till date hampered the commercial exploitation of this valuable natural reserve.

But things are likely to change soon with the Government in the final stages of granting the licence for mining to a major company.

The authorities are enthusiastic about the high-value project. “We had floated a global tender for mining activity and we have currently short-listed three companies,” said Industries Minister Nawang Rigzin Jora. The companies will be assessed for their financial and technical capability, as well as past experience, to ensure that the Padder sapphire is mined in the most scientific manner, he added.

The project would be implemented on a joint-venture basis with the State-owned Jammu and Kashmir Minerals Ltd (JKML), which currently holds the lease for the sapphire mines.

Prized qualities


From a chance discovery by a caravan during the early-1880s, the sapphire producing mines at Padder have achieved legendary status in the jewellery world. Mining activity began in a big way in 1885 and ended in 1890. The gems mined during this period are valued highly and usually fetch enormous prices around the world. They are prized for the intensity of the pure blue colour sans the undertones of green, grey or purple.

Their colour holds up in all kinds of light, which experts describe as a magical property, as compared to other fine sapphires such as Burmese stones which lose their rich colour in the evening light. The presence of microscopic inclusions in the stone gives it a magical ‘velvety’ effect, creating a soft and yet strong colour.

According to ebay, the price of Kashmir sapphire easily crosses $100,000 a carat, making it the most expensive in its category.

Abid Suhail, General Manager of JKML, says, “The beauty of Kashmir sapphire is simply unmatched.”

Last year, a 22.66-carat Kashmir sapphire pendant was auctioned by Christie’s for a record $3 million.

The mining activity at Padder takes place only two months in a year at 4,500 metres above sea-level. “The geography is extreme, there is high altitude, low air, men and machinery can’t work properly and one gets there after travelling three days on foot,” says Suhail.

Raw sapphire auctions

JKML has undertaken sporadic mining in the area and, as a result, accumulated some raw sapphire known as corundum.

It recently auctioned some of the corundum, which attracted buyers from as far as South East Asia, and fetched Rs 1.3 crore for the 12 kg sold.

The company plans to auction more corundum during the next few months. However, it does not have the facility or infrastructure to convert the corundum into finished gems.

Illegal mining

Like other industries in Jammu and Kashmir, sapphire mining too received a setback during 1989, when violence erupted in the Valley. Owing to their location, the mines became a ‘no go’ area for authorities. Nobody knew what went on at the mines during the turbulent 1990s.

Finally, when a government team visited the mines in 1998, they were shocked to find rampant illegal mining. The miscreants had used crude devices, even detonations, to remove the prized gems, thereby causing considerable damage to the infrastructure at the mines.

“A huge smuggling ring has thrived in the area with some active help from employees of the company,” an insider at the company said.

Waking up to the threat, the government has gradually begun providing security cover to the mines and now plans a foolproof, year-round security grid.

The absence of mining activity during the 1990s has pushed JKML further and further into losses. The staff has not been paid for seven months due to non-availability of funds.

The company earns about Rs 12 crore a year, which includes government aid, but its total expenditure is Rs 18 crore.

Future prospects

However, Suhail is convinced the mines hold a bright future for J&K economy. “Till date no comprehensive study has been made in this regard, but one thing is sure: the deposits are huge enough to turn the fortunes of Jammu and Kashmir,” he says.

Haji Abdul Majid Butt, a noted geoscientist, says that “on the basis of satellite imagery done by National Remote Sensing Agency, there is presence of 480 kg of gem variety on the ridge as initial deposit, which can be recovered through mining.” There are six ridges in the 2-sq km area.

The government is contemplating a satellite study as part of a multi-pronged survey to determine the exact potential of these mines.

“The Government has approached the Indian Remote Sensing Centre at Hyderabad and sought its help to work out the quantity of sapphire reserves in Padder,” says the Industries Minister Jora. Senior officers of the Industries Department have been directed to stay in touch with IRSC authorities to ensure the exercise is undertaken at the earliest.

According to sources, the Gujarat Minerals Development Corporation (GMDC) is tipped to be the favourite for getting the mining contract at Padder.

“Mining is an extremely sensitive issue here and fingers of suspicion are raised if the contract is awarded to private companies,” says a source. “So it seems they want to play safe by giving the contract to a government undertaking which is also financially strong and Gujarat Minerals matches both categories,” he added.

As India’s second-largest lignite producer, GMDC also has interest in other projects like coal, power, cement, bauxite and so on. According to experts, if GMDC hits the bull’s eye at Padder it will be a win-win situation for both the company and the State.

Jammu Kashmir & Laddakh

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